Pesachim

Pesachim 50b: Is two days Yom Tov “minhag hamakom”?

Pesachim 50b: If one goes from a place where they work on Erev Pesach morning to a place where they do not work, or vice versa, he must follow the stringencies of both places.

פסחים נ ע”ב: ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם.

שו”ע או”ח תצ”ו ס”ג: בני ארץ ישראל שבאו לחוצה לארץ אסורים לעשות מלאכה ביום טוב שני בישוב אפילו דעתו לחזור, וכל זמן שלא הגיע לישוב אפילו אין דעתו לחזור מותר לפי שעדיין לא הוקבע להיות כמותן אבל אם הגיע לישוב ואין דעתו לחזור נעשה כמותן ואסור בין במדבר בין בישוב וכל חוץ לתחום אין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שהלך לשם.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 496:3) rules that keeping one day Yom Tov in Eretz Yisroel or two days outside of Eretz Yisroel falls in the category of minhag hamakom and is subject to the rule in our Mishnah. However, the Chacham Tzvi (167) disagrees. He writes that minhag hamakom applies only in questions of halacha, where the same halacha applies in all locations, yet different communities follow different opinions. For example, the Gemara says that Eretz Yisroel and Bavel followed two different practices as to whether a certain fat is permitted. What is forbidden fat is forbidden everywhere, but certain places had a minhag to follow the opinion that considers certain fats not forbidden. If the community that considered it forbidden were to move en masse to the other location, they would continue to refrain from eating it, because the prohibition is not dependent on location. But Yom Tov Sheini is not a universal halachic question; it simply depends on whether the messengers of Beis Din reached that particular place. Therefore, people from Chutz Laaretz who are staying temporarily in Eretz Yisroel should only keep one day Yom Tov, just as they would if they had visited during the time when Beis Din sent out messengers.

When the Satmar Rav lived in Eretz Yisroel for a whole year in 1945-46, he kept only one day Yom Tov. After moving to the United States, he made four visits to Eretz Yisroel (in 1952, 1955, 1959 and 1965). He was always careful not to be in Eretz Yisroel over Yom Tov, so as not to run into the dilemma of whether to keep one day and risk doing work on Yom Tov, or to keep two days and risk neglecting the mitzvah of tefillin. Although most poskim agree with the Shulchan Aruch, he felt that as a descendent of the Chacham Tzvi, he should be careful not to violate the Chacham Tzvi’s opinion.

Source: Rabbi Moshe Zoberman, shiur on Taanis 10b

Pesachim

Pesachim 46b: Making Knaidlach for the Last Day of Pesach

Pesachim 46b: Rabbah said that one who cooks on Yom Tov for the next day does not violate a Torah prohibition because theoretically, guests may come today and eat the food. Although Rabbinically it is prohibited, Chazal made an exception when Yom Tov falls on Friday and one makes an eiruv tavshilin.  

Rema 527:20: One who is fasting on Yom Tov is forbidden to cook for others. R’ Akiva Eiger: This is only when one is abstaining from all food, but if one abstains from a particular food because of a chumra (e.g. kitnios), he is allowed to cook it for others, or even for himself to eat on the following day, since others could eat it today. Maharsham and Chazon Ish disagree with this in the case of kitnios but agree in the case of gebrokts.

פסחים מו ע”ב איתמר, האופה מיום טוב לחול, רב חסדא אמר: לוקה, רבה אמר: אינו לוקה. רב חסדא אמר: לוקה, לא אמרינן הואיל ומיקלעי ליה אורחים חזי ליה. רבה אמר: אינו לוקה, אמרינן הואיל. אמר ליה רבה לרב חסדא: לדידך, דאמרת לא אמרינן הואיל ־ היאך אופין מיום טוב לשבת? אמר ליה: משום עירובי תבשילין. ־ ומשום עירובי תבשילין שרינן איסורא דאורייתא? ־ אמר ליה: מדאורייתא צורכי שבת נעשין ביום טוב, ורבנן הוא דגזרו ביה, גזירה שמא יאמרו אופין מיום טוב אף לחול. וכיון דאצרכוה רבנן עירובי תבשילין ־ אית ליה היכירא.

שו”ע או”ח תקכ”ז ס”כ ברמ”א:  ומי שמתענה ביום טוב אסור לבשל לאחרים אפילו לצורך בו ביום דהוי כמי שלא הניח עירוב שאינו מבשל לאחרים (מהרי״ו).

וכתב המ”ב דהאחרונים חולקים על הרמ”א, וכתב ר’ עקיבא איגר (שו”ת א,ה) דאפילו להרמ”א היינו דוקא במי שמתענה אבל מי שנוהג איסור בדבר מסוים מותר לבשל לאחרים האוכלים אותו, או לעצמו על שבת אם אוכל אותו בשבת (כגון אשכנזי בן א”י המבשל קטניות לאחרון של פסח, הואיל וחולים או ספרדים יכולים לאכלו בו ביום(. והמהרש”ם בדעת תורה (תקכז,א) אסר דלא אמרינן הואיל ואי מיקלעי ליה אורחים כיון שמחזיק אותו כאיסור, וגם החזון איש (מט,טז) אסר מטעם אחר משום מוקצה, אבל שניהם כתבו דמותר לבשל מצה שרויה לאחרון של פסח, דאף המחמירים סוברים דמעיקר הדין מותר שהרי באחרון של פסח אוכלים, ולכך מותר לבשל ביו”ט הואיל ואם בא אורח הנוהג היתר היה יכול לאכלו בו ביום.

R’ Yaakov Kamenetsky told the following story about his great-great-great uncle, R’ Eliyahu Schick.

(R’ Eliyahu Schick’s sister was the grandmother of Chaya Shereshevsky, who married R’ Shmuel Hirsch Kamenetsky, R’ Yaakov’s grandfather.)

Once, while R’ Eliyahu was the rav of Derechin, there was a devasting fire, and he went to collect donations to help families rebuild. He came to the town of Smargon, where his cousin by marriage, R’ Leibele Shapiro (also known as R’ Leibele Kovner), who was the rav of the town, accompanied him. When they came before the home of a wealthy Chabad chassid, R’ Leibele told him there was no use going into that house because the owner would not contribute to anything in Derechin, a shtetl known to be a center of misnagdim. R’ Eliyahu himself was also personally considered to be a fervent misnaged, to the extent that Chassidim accused him of deliberately giving a psak to cause them suffering. In the year 1873, when Pesach fell on Shabbos, R’ Eliyahu prohibited the preparation of knaidlach on Friday for the last day of Pesach because he held that one may cook on Yom Tov for use on Shabbos only such food as one may eat on Yom Tov itself. When R’ Eliyahu passed away a year and a half later, the Chassidim contended that he was punished from Heaven because his ruling had prevented them from enjoying knaidlach on the single day out of Pesach when they were allowed to eat them.

R’ Eliyahu said, “I will bet you a ruble for the Volozhin Yeshiva that I can get a donation from him.” He went in and came out with three rubles. “How did you do it?” asked R’ Leibele. “I told him a story about the Alter Rebbe,” said R’ Eliyahu.

R’ Leibele then said, “You gained three rubles, and here is my ruble for Volozhin, but I cannot accompany you any longer because the Torah commands מדבר שקר תרחק.” 

R’ Leibele was a talmid of R’ Chaim Volozhiner, and his son, R’ Refoel Shapiro, was the Netziv’s son-in-law and successor as rosh yeshiva of Volozhin when it reopened in 1899. R’ Refoel’s son-in-law was R’ Chaim Brisker.

When R’ Leibele was on his deathbed, R’ Yisroel Salanter wanted to visit him, but R’ Leibel refused because he was opposed to the Mussar movement. People said to him, “Is this the time for machlokes?” R’ Leibele replied, “If not now, when? Will I not be going off in a short time to the World of Truth?”

R’ Yisroel Salanter said in his hesped on him, “The posuk in Daniel (8:12) says, ‘Truth will be cast down to the ground.’ What we are doing now is burying truth underground.” The ability to perceive one’s adversary as being truthful – while wrong – because he is consistent in his outlook indicates that R’ Yisroel himself was so unequivocally committed to truth that he had greater esteem for one who was truthful than for one who was in agreement with his Mussar approach.

[R’ Eliyahu evidently held that those who don’t eat gebrokts consider it a real prohibition and therefore cannot take into account the possibility that those who do eat it might show up for a meal – similar to the halacha of kitnios according to the Maharsham.]

Source: Making of a Godol, pages 111-114